Everyday Life

Disease and Ailments That Plagued the Medieval Period

The medieval period spanning from the 5th to the 15th century was marked by numerous challenges, including widespread disease outbreaks that had a significant impact on populations.

During this time, medical knowledge was limited, and communities faced a range of infectious and non-infectious diseases.

Let us explore the common diseases of the medieval period, focusing on major outbreaks such as the Black Death and examining the progress made in modern medicine to combat diseases that were once deadly.

The Black Death

The Black Death, one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, swept across Europe in the 14th century, leaving a trail of devastation and death in its wake. The disease, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, was primarily transmitted by fleas that infested rats, which were prevalent in densely populated areas.

Harbinger of Doom Black Death

The Black Death first emerged in the mid-14th century and quickly spread throughout Europe, resulting in an estimated 25 million deaths, or around 30-60% of the European population at the time. The disease had a profound impact on society, economy, and culture, leaving scars that lasted for generations.

Black Death
The mere thought of the plague terrified people. Here their naivety is shown as they burn Jewish people for ‘carrying the disease’.

The origins of the Black Death are believed to be in Central Asia, where it existed among wild rodent populations. It was likely introduced to Europe through trade routes, reaching the Crimea region in 1346. From there, it rapidly spread through merchant ships and trade networks, reaching Western Europe by 1347. The disease made its way across the continent, affecting cities, towns, and rural areas.

Symptoms and Effects

The Black Death presented in various forms, including bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. Bubonic plague, the most common form, was characterised by swollen and painful lymph nodes, called buboes. Septicemic plague affected the bloodstream, leading to organ failure, while pneumonic plague affected the lungs, causing severe respiratory symptoms. The rapid onset and high mortality rate of the disease caused widespread fear and panic.

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The Black Death had far-reaching consequences on medieval society. The staggering death toll led to labour shortages, economic disruption, and social upheaval. With a significant decline in the workforce, wages increased, and peasants gained more bargaining power. Feudal structures began to crumble, and the feudal system eventually gave way to a more fluid social order.

Responses and Beliefs

Medieval society grappled with the devastation of the Black Death, seeking explanations and remedies. People turned to religion, engaging in acts of piety and penance, while others resorted to extreme measures such as self-flagellation and persecution of religious minorities.

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Medical theories of the time attributed the disease to miasma (bad air) or celestial alignments. Various treatments and preventive measures were employed, including bloodletting, quarantines, and public health regulations.

Aftermath and Long-term Impact

While the immediate impact of the Black Death was devastating, it also brought about significant changes. The population decline led to labour scarcity and higher wages, contributing to the end of serfdom and the rise of the middle class. Innovations in agriculture and technology emerged as a response to labour shortages, ultimately leading to advancements and improved living conditions.

Nuremberg
‘The Dance of Death’. The Black Death was so widespread that many believed it came from hell.

The Black Death was a pivotal event in history, exposing vulnerabilities in medieval society and challenging existing beliefs and institutions. The pandemic highlighted the importance of public health measures, sanitation, and disease prevention. It also emphasised the need for scientific inquiry and advancements in medicine, which would eventually pave the way for future developments in understanding and combating infectious diseases.

Leprosy

Leprosy, also known as Hansen’s disease, was a prevalent and feared disease in medieval England. It was a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. Leprosy primarily affects the skin, peripheral nerves, and mucous membranes, leading to disfigured skin lesions, nerve damage, and potential disability if left untreated.

Leprosy has a long history and was prevalent in England during the medieval period. The disease carried significant social and religious stigma, and lepers were often marginalised and isolated from society.

Transmission and Symptoms

Leprosy is believed to be transmitted through respiratory droplets, but the exact mode of transmission is not fully understood. It has a long incubation period, often taking years or even decades for symptoms to appear. Early signs of leprosy include pale or discoloured patches of skin, loss of sensation, and thickened nerves.

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As the disease progresses, nodules and skin lesions develop, leading to deformities and loss of body parts.

Leprosy was highly stigmatised in medieval England, and those afflicted with the disease were often ostracised from their communities. Lepers were required to wear distinct clothing, such as a bell or clapper, to warn others of their presence. They were often banished to leper colonies or leprosaria, where they lived in segregated communities.

Treatment and Care

Medieval medicine had limited understanding and resources to effectively treat leprosy. Many believed the disease was incurable and considered it a divine punishment. Some treatments involved herbal remedies, bloodletting, and religious rituals. Leprosaria provided a semblance of care and support, with some attempts made to manage symptoms and improve living conditions.

Leprosy
It wasn’t just common folk who got leprosy. Here a bishop blesses clerics with the disease.

Leprosy had strong associations with religious beliefs and practices. It was often considered a punishment for sin or a test of faith. The story of Lazarus, a biblical figure believed to have been afflicted with leprosy, served as a powerful narrative in religious teachings and influenced perceptions of the disease.

The exact reasons for the decline of leprosy in medieval England are not well-documented. Improved living conditions, changes in social attitudes, and advancements in medical knowledge may have contributed to its decline over time. The introduction of isolation measures, although driven by fear and prejudice, may have inadvertently limited the spread of the disease.

More Medieval Ailments

During the medieval period, various other ailments and illnesses plagued the population due to factors such as poor sanitation, limited medical knowledge, and challenging living conditions. Here are some more of the common medieval ailments.

Smallpox

Smallpox was another significant killer during the medieval period. Caused by the Variola virus, it spread rapidly and had a high mortality rate.

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Famous cases include the outbreak in the 10th century, during the Byzantine Empire, which led to the deaths of thousands. Smallpox left survivors with disfiguring scars and often caused blindness. The development of a vaccine by Edward Jenner in the late 18th century marked a turning point in combating this deadly disease.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient disease that affected medieval populations. It spread through close contact and overcrowded living conditions.

One notable case is the skeletal remains found in a medieval cemetery in England, showing signs of spinal deformities caused by TB. The disease caused significant morbidity and mortality, with symptoms including coughing, weight loss, and fatigue. Today, effective treatments and vaccines have reduced its impact.

Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi, spread through contaminated food and water. Notable outbreaks occurred throughout history, including an outbreak in the Holy Roman Empire, which affected soldiers and civilians.

Leprosy
A grim reminder from the past. A medieval leper bell.

Symptoms included high fever, gastrointestinal distress, and fatigue. Improved sanitation and antibiotics have reduced its prevalence in modern times.

Syphilis

Syphilis emerged as a significant disease during the late medieval period. It is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum.

Famous cases include the outbreak among the soldiers during the French invasion of Italy in the late 15th century, which later spread throughout Europe. Syphilis caused severe health issues and led to widespread social panic.

Malaria

Malaria, transmitted by mosquitoes infected with plasmodium parasites, affected medieval populations in regions where the disease was endemic.

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Large case numbers include outbreaks in areas with marshlands and stagnant water, such as the Camargue region in France. The introduction of mosquito control measures and antimalarial drugs has significantly reduced its impact today.

Measles

Measles, caused by the measles virus, was a highly contagious and deadly disease during the medieval period.

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Famous cases include the outbreak in the 11th century, known as the Great Epidemic, which affected large parts of Europe and caused widespread deaths, particularly among children. Measles presented with symptoms such as high fever, rash, and respiratory distress. The development of vaccines in the 20th century has played a vital role in controlling and preventing measles outbreaks in modern times.

Influenza

Influenza, or the flu, has affected human populations for centuries. Although its impact in the medieval period is difficult to quantify accurately, it remains a global concern today.

Notable outbreaks include the Spanish flu pandemic in 1918, which infected an estimated one-third of the world’s population and caused millions of deaths. The ongoing research and development of vaccines and antiviral medications help prevent severe complications and control influenza outbreaks.

Diseases Today

While many diseases from the Medieval period still exist today, significant advancements in medicine have transformed the outcomes and management of these illnesses. Vaccinations, antibiotics, improved hygiene practices, and better understanding of disease transmission have led to the prevention, control, and treatment of once-deadly diseases.

Plague
It wasn’t just the Middle Ages that brought fear and death. A well known image of a plague doctor from the 17th century.

Additionally, there are several diseases prevalent today that were not prominent during the medieval period. These include HIV/AIDS, which emerged in the 20th century and has had a profound impact globally. Other examples include modern lifestyle diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which have become more prevalent due to changes in diet and sedentary lifestyles.

Feeling Better?

The medieval period was marked by numerous diseases that had devastating consequences for populations.

The Black Death, smallpox, tuberculosis, and other illnesses caused widespread mortality and societal disruption. However, through advancements in medical science and public health measures, diseases such as smallpox and leprosy have been eradicated or brought under control.

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Modern medicine continues to strive towards combating diseases through research, prevention, and treatment. By learning from the past, we can better understand the challenges faced by our ancestors and work towards a healthier future for all. We hope!

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